GENERALIZED: Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures are characterized by individual falling, body rigid with muscle jerks, shallow breathing, bluish skin, and loss of bladder/bowel control. Absence (petit mal) seizures are characterized by blank stares, rapid blinking, chewing-like motion. Atonic (drop attack) seizures are characterized by the individual falling or collapsing suddenly. Myclonic seizures are characterized by brief muscle jerks in all or part of the body.
PARTIAL: Simple Partial seizures are characterized by jerking in one area of the body with no loss of awareness. Individual may feel sad, fearful, or angry, and may have nausea or funny feeling in stomach, or smell something odd. Complex Partial seizures are characterized by blank stares with random or no activity. Individual will be unaware and unresponsive. May pick at objects, and may run or appear afraid.
abscence (petite mal)  seizures produce momentry  loss of awareness, sometimes accompanied by movements of face
blinking or arm movements. these seizures may be frequent and differ from daydreaming  in that they interrupt ongoing
activity. the individual  immediately returns to full awareness  after one of these  episodes.
Management :
Just make sure the individual is fully aware of his surroundings.
Also called drop seizures. A sudden loss of muscle tone causes the individual to collaspse. Sometimes there is only a sudden drop of the head. A few seconds to a minute  later there is a full return to conciousness. These seizures can cause injuries because of the fall. 
Myclonic Seizures:
 These invovle a quick sudden jerk. They may be mild and affect one part of the body  or severe enough  to throw
an individual to the floor. they can occur singularly or in clusters.  management  the individual should be helped up examined for injury from the force of the fall  reassured and allowed to rest until  fully recovered.
 Simple Partial seizures
Affects movement and sensation but not consciousness  it may involve a jerking  movements  that affect one side
of the body and may progress to a generalized  seizure  partial seizures that affect the sensations  may cause things
to look sound taste smell or feel different, may also cause stomach pain nausa or sudden fear or anger.
Compfort  and reassure the individual  if he or she seems confused or frightened. 
Complex partial seizures 
Alters consciousness and the individual  is not aware  during  the seizure  the seizure may begin with a blank stare
chewing movements and repeated  motions  The individual may seem dazed and may perform various acts  picking
up and putting down  objects  picking at clothes or trying to run away  this type or seizure  lasts for a few minutes and has no memory of the seizure.  
 If the individual has an episode of this type and appears dazed and oblivious to his surroundings  take his arm
gently (if he is away from his seat) speak to him calmly and guide him carefully back in to his seat do not
gran hold or speak loudly . if there is resistenance just make sure  he is not in any jeopardy. Ignore the automatic
behavior  if the individual remains seated  but have him stay in the classroom  until fully awareness  returns  always
help re-orient the individual if he seems confused  after wards.
                 The average convulsive seizure in a individual who has epilepsy is Not a medical emergency.
      seizures usually resolve themselves  without problems . Immediate medical attention  is not required unless.
 An individual has a seizure and there is no known history of Epilepsy. Some other medical problem
     might be causing the seizure and emergency  treatment of that problem might be required.
Consciousness does not return after the seizure ends.  with in fifteen to twenty minutes
  A second seizure begins shortly after the first one without regaining consciousness in between.
 > the seizure shows no sign in ending after five minutes.
  If an individual hits his or her head with force during the seizure or just before it began. one or more of the following
signs also call for immediate medical attention
 Difficulty in rousing after twenty minutes
complaints of difficulty with vision
persistent headache aftesr a short rest period
Unconsciousness with failure to respond.
Dilation of the pupils of the eye or if the pupils are unequal in seize.
 If a seizure  occurs while swimming  and there is a possiblity that the large amounts of water
has been ingested  he /she should be checked  by a doctor as soon as possible even if he seems fully
  A caregiver may notice that an individual is having frequent episodes of blank staring and unresponsiveness
both symptoms of a seizure disorder. Many individuals have been diagnoised and successfully treated  because of an
alert caregiver or relative.
The most common signs of possible seizure activity is
 Brief staring spells (5-10 seconds.) in which the individual does not respond to direct attempts to gain
 his or her attention, periods of confusion, head dropping, sudden loss of muscle tone, episodes of rapid blinking,
 inappropriate movements of the mouth face accompanied by blank expressions,aimless dazed behavior including walking or repative  movements, involventary  jerking of an arm or leg.
 Observing single instance of any of  the above actions is no proof an individual has a seizure
 disorder other things could cause it. 
 Seizure prevention
Antiepileptic Medications
 Many indivduals with epilepsy gain control of their seizure  with regualar use of seizure preventing medicines
these medicines  These medicines have to be taken daily  at the same time indicated by the doctor.
Successful treatment depends on keeping a steady level of medication  in thepersons blood at all times
so it is important that the dosages not be missed or given late. The medicines should be given according to the
doctors instructions.
Although the side affections of an antiepleptic drug are generally mild  unusal fatizure Lethargy clumminess
nausa, or other signs of ill health in the individual with epilepsy  should be reported promptly.
Vagus Nerve Stimulator implant
 The Fda approved the Vns implant in 1997 orginially, the implant met with some resistence from physicians and individuals.  However as more became known about the procedure and its successes  more individuals (children
and adults) are having the devise implanted as away to control seizures. All caregivers should be well versed in
careing for the indivduals
  Thirty thousand implants have been performed in the united States. since 1997 much success has been noted in the  
in the medical journals  including the treatment for depression parkinsons disease andAlzheimers .
      Most idviduals with epilepsy test in the average I. Q. range.  However  research studies have shown that a number of individuals with epilepsy achieve at a lower level than test scores would  predict.There are several reasons why this may happen.
 The medicines preventing seizures may be affecting the abiltity  to learn.  Phenobarbitol  sometimes ha this affect certain other drugs do as well. A changed in medicine might help.
Unrecognized seizure activity  in the brain  may be interfering with attention. Difficulty paying attention is a frequent problem for children with epilepsy. Especially boys. Anxiety over the possiblity of of having a seizure may be affecting
attention as well.
Some underlying condition  in the brain may interfere with learning and memory or the way the brain handles the information . These problems may show up in math reading and tasks involving memory.
Missing school can ususally be remedied through tutoring and remedial  work. The other problems are subtler and may
require to identify and over come . Testing by a Neuropsychologist. knowledgeable about epilepsy can help determine
if the difficulties a child is having are due to some specific learning disbility. Once difficulties are identified  special education techinques may help the youngester over come the problem.
 The average child with epilepsy will not have behavior problems. and will respond to  appropriate discipline in the classroom in the same manner as all other children.
When a child with epilepsy do have problems behavior problems there are several factors. may be the cause.  
 The seizure activity itself the medication, the child's own anxiety and low self esteem. or parental over protection
or indulgence are all factors that produce behavior problems.
 Well meaning adults tend to protect children with epilepsy from life itself.
Parents may limit a child's participation in the usual childhood activities. because of fear that a seizure will occur
during the  activities or that exertion will somehow tringger.
  This is unfortunate for several reasons . First vigorous physical activity is not generally associated with a great number
of seizures: in fact studies suggest fewer seizures  will occur when the average person is active.
Secondly  the individual  is excluded from experiences that would help him develop social skills and self confidence.
The sense of being diferent of being unable to join others are doing  encourage  dependence and keeps him socially
    The outside experiences offers the individual with epilepsy  a unique  opportunity to break the pattern of over protection
and isolation where ever possible  he should be incouraged  to take part  in all activities. Careful supervision  is needed
when a individual with seizures  takes swimming or gym. With appropriate safeguards  these activities can be safely undertaken.
Common Seizure Triggers
Missed doses of antiepilepsy  medication ( too little medication)
Antiepilepsy medication toxicity  ( too much medication)
Lack of  Sleep
Abuse of Alcohol and other drugs
Fever colds infections or other illnesses
Blinking and flashing lights geometric patterns (photosensitivity)
Menstrual cycle  hormonal changes or imbalances
for instance at puberty or during menopause
Low blood surgar
Deficiency  of Vitiamin  B6, Sodium, Calcium or Magnesium
Sudden streess such as being started  which may cause hyperventilation